Periodontitis is a common disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and oral cavity bone support due to an inflammatory host response triggered by periodontal microbial infection. Poor lifestyle, low socioeconomic level, and health-related risk behaviors have been linked to periodontal disease.
Common Risk Factors for Periodontitis
Most periodontal infections are linked to tobacco smoking. Tobacco smoking causes significant damage to periodontium tissue and accelerates the advancement of periodontitis. When compared to non-smokers, smoking is more likely to result in difficulties such as tooth and bone loss, gingival recession, and the development of periodontal pockets, all of which raise the risk of developing chronic periodontitis.
Oral cancer is a prevalent health problem that is linked to cigarette use. Nicotine in cigarettes can cause apoptotic cell death by affecting the function and buildup of periodontal cells like gingival fibers, gingival membrane cells, periodontal ligament cells, and other cells. This can alter periodontal disease progression, block immunological defences, and worsen the inflammatory response, causing damage and destruction of the alveolar bone.
Diabetes patients have a higher rate of periodontal disease, and it is more severe. Changes in blood vessels are caused by diabetes. Thickening of blood arteries can impede the flow of nutrients and waste disposal from bodily tissues. The gums and bones can be weakened due to the diminished blood supply. As a result, they are more susceptible to infection.
Obesity is another risk factor for periodontitis. Obesity causes a chronic systemic inflammatory response linked to several chronic illnesses, including periodontitis. When this is activated, it causes periodontal infection pathogenesis in patients. Bone disease, emotional distress, dietary vitamin D and calcium deficiencies, alcohol intake, socioeconomic position, metabolic disorders, and inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis are all risk factors for the development and progress of periodontitis.
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